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The most modern and ecological toilet in the history of mankind is flying into space

The most modern and ecological toilet in the history of mankind is flying into spaceNASA is getting ready to return to the Moon and its first flight to Mars. These will be events that will go down in the history of mankind. Before that happens, however, scientists must tackle mundane issues.

It is about the physiological matters of astronauts. They are not robots, so they will have to use the toilet regularly in these extremely inhospitable places. Scientists therefore designed and built the most advanced and ecological toilet in history.

We're talking about a $ 23 million toilet seat here. The new toilet will be installed in the vicinity of the current one, ie in the Node 3 connection module. Within days it will be transported to the International Space Station by the Cygnus cargo ship, where it will be used by the crew on a daily basis. Perhaps the astronauts will record videos of how they look in action.

The new space toilet works completely different than our home one. Since there is no gravity in space, waste products are pushed into two tanks by compressed air. The device has a 3D printed titanium separator and two fans. One reservoir is for feces and the other is for urine.

Separation of excrement is a key element in caring for ecology. Engineers explain that urine will be converted into drinking water, and feces will be used as fertilizer for space gardens. The toilet is 65 percent smaller and 40 percent lighter than the toilet currently used on the International Space Station.

Work on the Universal Waste Management System (UWMS), as the new toilet was called, lasted six years. Scientists used the experience gained during the improvement of earlier devices, which were also tested by astronauts in space. NASA informs that in 4 years the toilet will be sent to the moon along with the Artemis mission and will be used by astronauts during surface exploration.

Recently, NASA announced a competition to build a space toilet targeting talented non-agency engineers (see here). Scientists want to work together to develop even more advanced devices that will use the excrement as much as possible, for example as a valuable resource in top world tech construction of the first habitats.

The world's first electric passenger plane will take off in 2026

The world's first electric passenger plane will take off in 2026Electric planes are a dream of many environmentalists, because it is the aviation industry that generates unimaginable amounts of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Even in the 20s it will start to change for the better.

Many companies have plans for an ecological revolution in aviation, but all indications are that Heart Aerospace will be the first to offer a small passenger plane equipped with an electric propulsion. The Swedes presented an aircraft project called ES-19. It will be a machine designed for regional flights.

Why should such machines be popularized the fastest? Because the aviation industry is responsible for approx. 2 percent of global carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere, 40 percent of which comes from short-haul aircraft. One should also take into account the fact that the number of such flights is growing rapidly every year. ES-19 is therefore to be a panacea for this huge problem.

The Swedish eco-friendly plane will be powered by four electric motors, which will allow it to reach speeds of up to over slicktips km / h. Heart Aerospace representatives boast that their plane will have a range of 400 kilometers and will be able to take up to 20 people on board, not including crew members. The greatest attribute of the ES-19 is the ability to reduce its owners' fuel costs by 75 percent and servicing costs by up to 50 percent.

The company wants to start selling its plane in 6 years. Its representatives inform that the interest in the project is enormous and not only in Scandinavia. Asian carriers would like to see such machines in their fleet. This is where the most machines of this type fly. If they were fully electric, it would be possible in the end to seriously fight for the natural environment in countries where the atmosphere is the most greenhouse gases.

Regional airplanes are also the apple of Airbus's apple. Recently, the concern has presented its concepts of hydrogen-powered machines. The first such vehicles are to be available for sale after 2035. Before this happens, however, all indications are that machines powered by lithium batteries will become popular first.

NASA unveiled its new moon landing plans in 2024

NASA unveiled its new moon landing plans in 2024The US Space Agency has just released updated plans for the Artemis program, which will send another man and woman to the moon, and begin a permanent presence there.

It's been almost 50 years since the astronauts set foot on the moon, as the Apollo 17 mission was a success in 1972. Now NASA has been obliged by the American administration to run an aggressive, open program that will not only repeat this feat, but also establish a permanent post on the site, which will be a kind of base for the first Martian mission. NASA said the Artemis Lunar Exploration Program has made significant progress over the past 18 months, despite significant cost overruns by the final Space Launch System (SLS) ground tests, which will end in 2 months - then the whole thing will be shipped to the Kennedy Space Center at Florida, where it will undergo final assembly and integration with the Orion spacecraft.

As soon 1337directory the SLS is ready for flight, Orion's first mission, Artmeis I, will embark on its first autonomous space flight between the Earth and the Moon in 2021 to test life support systems, communications, and all. This will be followed by the first manned flight, Artemis II, in 2023, where astronauts will separate from the temporary cryogenic station and practice manual approach and departure as training for future Artemis III maneuvers (e.g. docking). and subsequent missions. In the meantime, NASA will use commercial delivery services twice a year (starting next year) to send the necessary demonstration instruments and technologies to the moon.

The main event is planned for 2024, then the Orion ship will set off on the Artemis III mission, the aim of which will be to take astronauts to the moon - either directly via the lunar lander or indirectly via the station, which is to be built in 2023. In the future, this is to play an important role as a safe harbor for further space exploration, as well as a center for managing work on the lunar surface, as the construction of the Artemis Base Camp, where new rovers, systems and lunar "inhabitants" will be stationed. As we already know, in the first place, 2 astronauts will fly to the moon, a man and a woman who will spend 7 days there - during this time they will collect samples and carry out various experiments that were impossible to perform on Earth.

As NASA administrator Jim Bridenstine comments on the new plans: "With joint party support from Congress, our mission to return to the moon in the 21st century is within American hands." We have strengthened our exploration plans in recent months, and we are also continuing to work on the budget and architecture. We return to the moon for scientific discoveries, economic benefits, and inspiration for the next generation of explorers. As we build our permanent presence on the moon, we are also moving forward in our plans to send the first human to the Red Planet.

The world's first petabyte disk can be made of glass

The world's first petabyte disk can be made of glassCould the packaging of new disks be decorated with large stickers with the inscription carefully? There are many indications for this, because, as we are just learning, glass may be a key component in the development of capacious data carriers of the future.

IDC predicts the world will produce 175 zettabytes (GB) of data by 2025, driven by demand for high-definition video and the growing Internet of Things networks. This is almost six times more than in 2018, and this is just the beginning, because according to estimates, before the end of the decade, the numbers will make you dizzy. It is true that only a fraction of them will require storage, but even in this situation, current solutions may not be enough: "We believe that human appetite for storage will force scientists to look at completely different types of materials," explains Waguih Ishak of Corning Research and Development Corp. And no wonder, since currently the largest hard drives can boast a capacity of around 20 TB.

This means that engineers have to get down to work and propose solutions to meet their needs - one of them seems to be drives that use quartz glass slides, such as those presented last November by Microsoft as part of its Project Silica. We are talking about structures measuring 75 x 75 x 2 mm, which are able to store up to 75.6 GB of data. Moreover, while glass is involved, the tests showed remarkable resistance to poor treatment. The team tried to drown the medium, put it in a microwave oven, demagnetized it, boiled it in water, scrubbed with steel wool and baked at 260 ℃ - the data remained intact and could be read normally.

Modern data warehouses based on them would therefore be able to survive many natural disasters and not only such as fires, floods, earthquakes, overcharges, power outages or magnetic field interference, and they take up much less space. Sounds future-proof? Sure, that's why other vendors liked the idea, and in June this year, Seagate CEO John Morris confirmed that his R&D department was also working on a solution that uses glass for data storage. But glass media still has a lot of problems, and one of the most important seems to be the fact that currently they only allow data to be written once and then read, so they are not yet as functional as the current rewrite and read solutions.

Scientists are hopeful, however: - I am convinced that this is a matter of a decade and we will see a completely new type of media that will outshine everything we know today. And I am sincerely convinced that pure materials, such as quartz glass, will play a huge role in this, adds Waguih Ishak, quoted earlier. Nevertheless, there are challenges and it is impossible not to notice them, e.g. the recording process is still unreliable and difficult to repeat, and it is difficult to minimize the time needed for it - reading is not easy either, because then wave polarization and camera recording come into play. and machine learning algorithms that analyze images and translate them into data. In short, the potential is huge, but there is even more work and obstacles, and we are certainly not talking about a solution that we will see in the near future.

Human robo avatars have appeared in Japanese stores. This is the fight against CoVID-19

Human robo avatars have appeared in Japanese stores. This is the fight against CoVID-19The latest data say that the pandemic is not slowing down, on the contrary, it is taking off. Every day, new records in the number of infections are made all over the world. However, the Japanese have a very practical way to do it.

In the face of ever greater restrictions, FamilyMart, one of the largest retail chains in Japan, decided to initiate a very interesting project related to robots. As part of the experiment, employees will stay at home, but at the same time will continue to work, only remotely, using robo-avatars.

Sounds futuristic? Not for the Japanese who are used to such news, and now they will be able to take full advantage of these benefits. To this end, FamilyMart has established cooperation with Telexistence, which offers advanced robots with capabilities similar to human. A robot called Model-T can easily perform virtually any work in the store.

How does it look in practice? Well, the employee connects to the robot using VR goggles and manipulators. It is worth mentioning that the connection takes place via a super-fast and stable 5G network. The employee can see exactly what is around the robot at all times and can carry out his daily duties without interruption.

FamilyMart representatives announced that in the face of the CoVID-19 pandemic, they intend to equip their stores with such technologies. Thanks to them, they will not only take care of the health and safety of their employees and, at the same time, allow them to keep their jobs and livelihoods, but also support the domestic robotic industry, which creates countless new jobs.

The fight of companies and government against the pandemic in Japan is very important. We must bear in mind the fact that the largest group of people over 60 in the world lives in the Land of the Rising Sun. It is they who are at the highest risk of infection, complications and death.

The Arctic is entering a completely new climate, it has not been so bad yet

The Arctic is entering a completely new climate, it has not been so bad yetOur planet's northern fringes have been hit extremely hard by climate change, and new research is clearly showing the scale of the phenomenon - how much will it affect the rest of the planet?

The Arctic had been characteristically cold and icy for thousands of years, though there were of course some natural fluctuations. Now, however, scientists from the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) have found that these are no longer within a certain expected and natural range, strongly moving towards a completely new arctic climate: - The speed of these changes is very significant. This is a period of very rapid changes when observations of certain patterns from the past do not show what to expect next year. The Arctic is now entering a completely different climate than it was a few decades ago, explains the author of the research, Laura Landrum.

With ice levels hitting record lows and temperatures at record highs in recent years, the team set out to see if the Arctic actually had a different climate than it used to be. To do this, they had to dig through tons of data documenting the climate and conditions of the Arctic to define the extent of the "old Arctic," then use computer simulations to model the present and future Arctic. They mainly paid attention to three factors, i.e. the summer ice extent (this is the period when it is the smallest), air temperature in autumn and winter, and when precipitation changes from mainly snow to mainly rain.

This made it possible to check when each of the factors exceeded the previously assumed range, i.e. when serious climate changes began. The method used here assumes that if there were more than 2 standard deviations from the 1950 average in a 10-year period, then a new climate was created. With this approach, in terms of ice extent, a new climate began to form with the age change - the average September minimum is now 31% lower than it was in 1979-1988. If greenhouse gas emissions remain so high, we could experience 3 to 10 months of the year without sea ice in the Arctic by the end of this century.

Models also suggest that ocean air temperatures will enter a new climate by 2050, and inland temperatures will join in the second half of the century. In addition, it should be expected that by 2050 rainy periods will be extended by 20-60 days, and by 2100 by 90-120 days. - The Arctic will experience extremes in terms of ice range, temperatures and precipitation that are far different from what we have experienced before. We have to change our definition of what the climate is like in the Arctic, explains Landrum. Of course, some room for error should be left here, especially in the long term, but one thing is for sure - the climate on our planet in the next century may be completely different than it is today.

The female whale shark is officially the largest fish in our oceans

The female whale shark is officially the largest fish in our oceansOr at least among those we know, because the sea depths probably still have many surprises. The only question is, are they as big as this latest discovery ?!

Whale sharks are huge and we have known it for a long time, but so far we have observed a kind of gender struggle, because scientists have not been able to reliably assess who is bigger - male or female. We only knew that adult specimens are on average 8-9 meters long, and the largest reliably measured specimen of this species was ... 18.8 m long (scientists have regularly received information about whale sharks measuring about 20 meters and weighing over 30 tons, but unfortunately they could not be scientifically confirmed). Interestingly, whale sharks achieve such impressive results only on ... plankton (one of 3 such species of sharks), which must serve them, because they can easily live up to 70 years and more.

It is worth emphasizing that they are also very gentle and pose no threat to humans, and they are easy to recognize by their characteristic coloration. Why are we explaining it? Because the whale shark can be found in tropical and subtropical waters all over the world, and also floating near the surface, so don't panic if necessary :) Coming back to the fight for the title of the biggest fish in the world - the results of the 10-year-old analysis just published leave no doubt . The winners are female whale sharks, which are 14 meters long on average, leaving the males far behind.

“They're absolutely huge - the size of an articulated bus on the street. But although they are so big, they grow very, very slowly. It's about 20-30 centimeters a year, explains Mark Meekan, a fish biologist at the Australian Institute of Marine Science and author of the study. This slow growth forced the researchers to track 54 individuals for some 10 years to get reliable results, but at the same time they obtained more than 1,000 measurements from dedicated cameras. Scientists say the larger size of the females could make a big difference when it comes to birthing pups, because although we have only documented one pregnant female so far, she has provided a lot of interesting information.

While in other species of sharks, females give birth to 2-12 young, this whale shark had close to ... 300 young! New research may also help to develop appropriate protection programs, because, as we know, in 2016 IUCN changed their threat status to "endangered", which results from the fact that the population has decreased drastically (some 50%) over the last 75 years. If you are a very slow growing animal and it takes 30 years or more to mature, the chances of a catastrophe before you can reproduce are enormous. And that's a real concern for whale sharks, adds Meekan.