Is Joker a dangerous movie Joaquin Phoenix has a ready answer for critics

Is “Joker” a dangerous movie? Joaquin Phoenix has a ready answer for critics

“Joker” made especially before the theatrical release headlines because of security concerns and fear of imitation perpetrators. Actor Joaquin Phoenix now explained why he held out from the debate and what he generally thinks of her.

In “Joker” director Todd Phillips tells the story of an ill-fated and around geschubsten by the company outsider who is spinning at some point and takes revenge with bloody violence against those who have done him wrong.

At least, one might fairly exaggerated and summarized simplistically “Joker”. And because the DC film apparently showing a gunman and violent criminals as heroes, has the one of compassion, of the theatrical release accumulated prior to the concern that “Joker” copycat could inspire – especially in the already troubled even by constant violence USA.

Why Joaquin Phoenix has so far kept out

Of course, Phillips and his lead actor Joaquin Phoenix were also addressed on this subject, which made sure in at least one documented case that Phoenix escaped from an interview and declared himself ready after an hour to continue the conversation.

In an interview with the Los Angeles Times revealed Phoenix now what was then passed through his head and defended “Joker” in no uncertain terms against the allegations.

His own research on the subject have namely shown that attention and media coverage much more people to acts of violence inspired as films about fictional characters, so Phoenix. “I was in an unfortunate position, because I thought, ‘I can not talk about it, because that is exactly what a part is probably the problem. Exactly the wrong thing to do. ‘ “

His own research on the subject have namely shown that attention and media coverage much more people to acts of violence inspired as films about fictional characters, so Phoenix.

A lot of noise about nothing

But in the end the fears set out anyway to be largely groundless VipMovies. Instead, as reported by Phoenix that he had received emails from people who tell him that they would perceive mental illnesses such as schizophrenia after the film with different eyes.

“Ultimately, it comes in the film about the power of kindness and the lack of empathy in the world – and that’s apparently arrived and spectators. It is amazing that a film that allegedly – as some people have written – would inspire mass chaos, in fact, just a few people inspired to dance down stairs. “

“Joker” is running in German cinemas since October 10 of 2019.

“Joker” is running in German cinemas since October 10 of 2019.

Bad news for Marvel fans In the future you have even more to look (and pay)

Bad news for Marvel fans: In the future, you have even more to look (and pay!)

Those who wanted to stay with the MCU on the ball, has so far limited to the movies. But in the future probably not enough more to truly understand everything in the successors to: going on “Avengers 4 Endgame”.

Let’s face it: To date, the Marvel series were at MCU absolute accessories. Sure, we watched “Daredevil”, “The Punisher” and Co., but because we were interested in the series, not because they were part of the MCU. Because we knew what there on Netflix and Co. happening in serial form, playing in the big “Avengers” universe not really matter.

What’s on Netflix and Co. happening in serial form, playing in the big “Avengers” universe not really matter.

And even the exceptions of which were irrelevant: Yes, as occurs in “Avengers: Endgame” with James D’Arcy as a butler and chauffeur Jarvis a character from “Agent Carter” on, but have seen the show had not completely to the scene capture. In the future, the one piece will change far!

Subscription to Disney + required

It has been known that MCU mastermind Kevin Feige at Marvel has become more powerful, well designed and the series according to his ideas and so closely linked to the movies – that were previously established in the cinema simply by the appearances of characters. But in an interview with Bloomberg, he now makes clear how closely that will be.

“If you want to understand everything that happens in the future in the Marvel movies, you probably have a subscription at Disney +”, Bloomberg writes so by referring to a conversation with fig. Now that’s a clear statement that the Marvel mastermind is also an example.

If you want to understand everything that happens in the future in the Marvel movies, you probably have a subscription at Disney +

DC 2 series for “Doctor Strange 2”

Some time ago it was announced that Elizabeth Olsen Scarlet Witch will be a key figure in “Doctor Strange 2” (aka “Doctor Strange In The Multiverse Of Madness”) and it would therefore be helpful to their series ( “Wanda Vision”) previously to watch.

But according to fig is not enough: “I think we have not yet mentioned”: The “Loki” series will lead a magician sequel with Benedict Cumberbatch directly. Whether this means that even nastier Tom Hiddleston as Thor’s half-brother in “Doctor Strange 2” mixes together, but does not reveal the face.

“Everything” as a keyword!

At the end of the move by Disney is clear. With Disney + you attack Netflix, must quickly attract many customers. If as many Marvel fans pick up the subscription, because they are afraid not to understand later MCU adventure more, the ever an important step for the Mouse House.

However, we believe that in the end of the day, but mainly comes to understand true “everything” (!), especially the many small details and allusions yesmovies. The rest should be also able to follow that. Anything else would be too dangerous, because Disney and fig are unlikely to want to alienate moviegoers who ensure that the Marvel movies to import billions and perhaps no money for a Disney + -Abo (or no time and desire for many additional hours of Marvel -Serienkonsum year).

that at the end of the day, but mainly comes true “everything” (!) to understand, especially the many small details and allusions.

Disney soon come to Germany +

Who but still want to have “everything”, who knows now finally when Disney starts in Germany. End of March 2020, there is as far as just announced first.


Can even Avengers 4 look old Joker is the most profitable comic book movie of all time

Can even “Avengers 4” look old “Joker” is the most profitable comic book movie of all time

As much as Marvel’s major heroes-skating exhibition is “Joker” probably not write more, at one point leaves Todd Phillips character drama not only “Avengers: Endgame”, but also all the other comic book movies behind …

“Dead Pool 2” was until recently the most successful R-rated film of all time. And then “Joker” came and left the so-called “Merc With A Mouth” look really old. The 785 million US dollars of the cheeky comic book movie has Todd Phillips’ Venice winner in any case almost obsolete playful. The film holds now at almost 950 million dollars and moving relentlessly to the Billion to. A milestone.

When financial magazine Forbes has the numbers five weeks after theatrical release after all against expected and found that “Joker” has already cracked the next record. And did not owe the film only its global box office, but ultimately, its low, set in relation production costs:

With a budget of 62.5 million dollars and a global box office, which is currently 953 million US dollars, “Joker” was already import the 15.3 times its cost, making it the most profitable comic book movie of all time.

With a budget of 62.5 million dollars and a global box office, which is currently 953 million US dollars, “Joker” was already import the 15.3 times its cost, making it the most profitable comic book movie of all time.

And the film he comes thus from the throne, probably have very few on the list …

“Joker” obsolete “The Mask,” “Venom” & Co.

Judging by the cost of production “The Mask” the greatest profit tossed among the comic book adaptations so far from: The cult film starring Jim Carrey played in 1994 “only” 351 million US dollars one, cost contrary to the new record holder but also significantly less (23 million Dollar). The following films lined up behind it:

“Venom”: Tom Hardy’s performance as a great anti-hero to critical acclaim, although only partially, but many spectators could nevertheless lured into the cinemas and import exceeds 854 million worldwide. Budget 90 million dollars.


“Batman”: Tim Burton’s “Batman” from 1989 may seem like Nolan’s “Dark Knight” trilogy for many fans no longer the best film about the Dark Knight to be. With a box office earnings of 411 million dollars and a budget of just 35 million US dollars but he is the most profitable to date.


“Deadpool” With 783 million US dollars worldwide, it brought the film, after all, the most successful R-rated film of all time – but not for long. Production costs 58 million dollars.


“Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles”: Another underdog. The film of 1990 cost a mere 13.5 million in production and rinsed 201 million in cash FMovies.

„Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles“:

What about the Marvel Cinematic Universe?

That we do not find the current Marvel productions in the ranking is not surprising. Even the “cheaper” films of the saga such as “Ant-Man” devoured at least cost of 130 million dollars. The there is indeed still recorded properly mega successful were ultimately but especially highlights that just were also the most expensive by far.

“Avengers 3: Infinity War”: The Beginning of the End of Infinity Saga played worldwide over two billion dollars, swallowed but also vast amounts of money. Between 300 and 400 million dollars invested in the spectacle makers to Iron Man, Captain America and Co.

„Avengers 3: Infinity War“:

“Avengers 4: Endgame”: “Endgame” like a box office earnings of 2.798 billion US dollars to be indeed the most successful film of all time, with a budget of 356 million US dollars, he is but also one of the most expensive – and therefore also not the most profitable comic adaptations. One consolation: Regardless of the production budget, the film in terms of profit but rather continue to have the edge.

„Avengers 4: Endgame“:

So it goes with Game Of Thrones continues This is the dance of the dragon in the new prequel

So it goes with “Game Of Thrones” continues: This is the dance of the dragon in the new prequel

In addition to “The Long Night” awaits us probably a second “Game Of Thrones” -Spin-off which to George R. R. Martin’s “Fire and Blood” (Engl. “Fire & Blood”) is based and in which comes to the so-called dance of the dragon. But what does that mean?

The world of “Game Of Thrones” has a long and as fascinating and bloody history. In a new post on his blog “Not A Blog” therefore also has (the admittedly biased) George R. R. Martin points out that the invented by him fantasy world of Westeros hergibt countless stories and a second “Game Of Thrones” -Spin-off (Martin himself prefers the term “successor series”) is quite possible.

In his blog post, it’s Martin, of course, to the news that HBO before is about to give a pilot episode to further “Game Of Thrones” series in order, based on the written by Martin history book “Fire and Blood”. More accurate course not told the author, however, be aware of its vague wording some details about the apparently not “Fire & Blood” (according to Martin, it namely not the obvious title) read out said series.

In his blog post, it comes naturally to Martin, the message that HBO before is about to give a pilot episode to another “Game Of Thrones” series in order

The Dance of the Dragon

He could confirm that there will be dragons in the new series, Martin wrote namely after all. And because it also refers to the article in the colleagues of Entertainment Weekly, in the Targaryen is mentioned at the very beginning of the civil war of the house, we go finally assume that in the second spin-off actually give priority to the so-called Dance of the Dragon will go.

He could confirm that there will be dragons in the new series

“Dance of the Dragon” is known in the world of “GoT” something romantic idealizing the long, bloody and devastating civil war between two rival factions of the Targaryen. The Dance of the Dragon began in 129 after the conquest of Westeros by Aegon I. (that is almost 170 years before the events of “Game Of Thrones”) after its descendant and the current King Viserys had died I..

“Dance of the Dragon” is known in the world of “GoT” something romantic idealizing the long, bloody and devastating civil war between two rival factions of the Targaryen.

Rhaenyra vs. Aegon II.

Two descendants of Viserys (not to be confused with Daenerys ‘brother from “Game Of Thrones”) imposed after Viserys’ death that is now entitled to the throne: his daughter from his first marriage, Rhaenyra, and his son from his second marriage, Aegon II Rhaenyra. long time was intended as a successor to the throne, but how to know “game of Thrones” fans, there have queens in the patriarchal world of Westeros traditionally heavy. And Aegon so could actually snatch the throne, and there was a war between them his half-sister.

imposed after Viserys’ death that is now entitled to the throne: his daughter from his first marriage, Rhaenyra, and his son from his second marriage, Aegon II.

Both contenders for the throne had powerful backers and soon almost all the major houses of Westeros on one side or the other were involved in the war. After bloody battles, the fiery destruction of whole cities and strokes and shocking betraying the civil war finally ended two years later with the death of Rhaenyra who was captured by Aegon and fed to his dragon. However, Aegon II. Died a short time later, after he had been poisoned, so that eventually Rhaenyras son Aegon III Putlockers. was crowned king.

Both contenders for the throne had powerful backers

The death of the dragon in the Civil War

This Aegon III. later received the nickname Drachentod (English: Dragonbane) missed because under his rule retains the last Targaryen dragon died (at least until Daenerys then many years later, her dragon eggs hatching). In addition to thousands of deaths and the destruction of Westeros almost all the dragons came in the Civil War, namely in order so that no real dragon breeding more was possible.

This Aegon III. later became known Drachentod (English: Dragonbane) missed because under his rule retains the last Targaryen dragon died

If HBO ie a pilot episode for a second “Game Of Thrones” prequel commission (which, as also emphasized Martin in his blog post again, is by no means certain), the dance of the dragon with his bloody battles and nasty twists has unquestionably enough Material. Simultaneously, a “Dance Of The Dragons” series does not mean that because of the other spin-off “The Long Night” is scrapped, because as already mentioned above, the interest should be high on new stories from Westeros enough for several series. So one thing is certain in any case: We will in the future not to Westeros and sacrificing “Game Of Thrones”.

the dance of the dragon with his bloody battles and nasty twists has unquestionably enough material

Spider-Man Iron Man and X-Men Another 9 () Marvel series for Disney + announced

“Spider-Man”, “Iron Man” and “X-Men”: Another 9 (!) Marvel series for Disney + announced

When Disney + ventured into the Netherlands for a test run, the streaming service provided insight into parts of the series inventory. And this news is likely to sparkle in the eyes of friends of classic cartoon heroes.

The public beta test of Disney +, which takes place in the Netherlands until 12th November 2019, will inevitably open up a part of the future streaming offer for the testers, such as: B. The Verge reports. And lo and behold, apart from the well-known productions and expected films are also a few minor surprises in the house, which once again clearly confirm: Disney + is the wet dream of every Marvel fan!

Disney + will be the wet dream of every Marvel fan!

Unlike the “Avengers”: Disney + has Spider-Man

In addition to the full pack of Marvel series, namely “The Falcon and The Winter Soldier”, “WandaVision”, “Loki”, “What If”, “Hawkeye”, “Ms. Marvel “,” She-Hulk “and” Moon Knight “, but there’s also a whole load of time-honored animated series of our favorite heroes. And while the MCU has to make do with the façade climber as Sony and Disney’s Marvel go their separate ways, Disney + can happily take advantage of Marvel’s old Spider-Man series.

We are looking forward to the following Marvel series:

We are looking forward to the following Marvel series:

Disney+ will have classic Marvel animated series like X-Men ‘92, Spider-Man ‘94, Spider-Woman ‘79, Spider-Man ‘81, Spider-Man and his Amazing Friends, Iron Man ‘94, Fantastic Four ‘94, Incredible Hulk, Silver Surfer, and Spider-Man Unlimited.

Of course, these are not all animated Marvel series that exist. So missing in the list z. For example, some productions from the 60s and 70s such as “The Marvel Super Heroes” (1966) and “The Fantastic Four” (1967). But that can still come. Either way, it’s cause for delight that the classic Marvel TV series for Disney + will be dedusted YESMOVIES.

So missing in the list z. Eg some productions from the 60s and 70s

Disney + will start in the US in November 2019. A start in this country is expected in late 2019 or early 2020.


Facebook and Microsoft jointly declare a great war on DeepFake technology

And again we are coming back to DeepFake technology, which has settled in our reality for good, and unfortunately it causes more and more problems not only to the largest corporations, but also to famous people and power.

We recently wrote about the fact that it has become a dangerous tool in the hands of criminals who have already stolen millions of dollars and are elusive with its use. Their goal has been large companies so far, but security specialists warn that it is only a matter of time before private victims become the victims. All because now almost everyone, thanks to quite simple to use software, is able to create an image or recording imitating a human voice or appearance.

The growing technology giants, Facebook, Microsoft and others, decided to address this growing problem by announcing work on the Deepfake Detection Challenge (DFDC), which is to encourage the industry to create new methods to detect such manipulation and prevent the spread of false information. The challenge involves the involvement of paid actors to create a deepfake database, which will then be available to people who want to get involved and use it to create deepfake detection software.

The list of challenge participants is already The Partnership on AI and scientists from College Park, Cornell Tech, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), University at Albany-SUNY, University of California, Berkeley, University of Maryland and University of Oxford tech advices. And no wonder, because the DFDC challenge provides grants and prizes, for which Facebook itself has allocated $ 10 million – the program will start at the end of this year and will last until the end of March 2020. Why is such a short time foreseen? Well, the problem is urgent, especially in the face of next year’s presidential election in the United States, which will certainly be a very big challenge for many technological giants.

And if under the DFDC you can actually work out some effective solutions, then the corporations will still have a lot of time to implement them and prepare for the fight against the wave of deepfakes, which in the fall of 2020 will certainly flood the network (all the more so that legislators now are pushing large companies to present a fighting strategy for that time). What’s more, DFDC raises some key questions about how to regulate this technology and what is the right way to use it.

However, not everyone likes this approach, especially since Facebook and Microsoft call deepfak any material modified by artificial intelligence that was created to mislead others. And although this is about a deliberate change, some Internet users are afraid that this definition may also include, for example, memes and other satirical activities, which in turn may lead to another restriction of artistic freedom on the web. Similar conclusions are presented by the Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF), which indicates that any top-down attempt to regulate deepfake technology can lead to unwanted censorship, and none of the automatic methods presented so far is able to effectively distinguish satire or parody from actual deepfake materials. What is your opinion? Do we need initiatives like Facebook and Microsoft, or do they themselves carry too much risk?


The largest 5G test network in Poland has just started in Warsaw

For a long time, we have all been waiting for universal access to the future 5G network, and the first advanced test network of this type launched in the capital city brings us closer to this desired goal.

Yesterday we informed that the president had signed an act on the development of telecommunications services and networks, which should significantly facilitate the creation of the infrastructure needed for 5G in our country, and today we learn that Warsaw, thanks to Orange Polska and Ericsson, is already testing the network, generated by 9 base stations on Warsaw Ochota and Powiśle, which allows you to download data at a speed of close to 900 Mb / s.

According to the press office of the said operator, this is the first such large 5G tests in Poland, checking the latest technology in urban conditions. According to Jean-François Fallacher, President of Orange Polska: – Today we are one step closer to launching the Polish fifth generation mobile network. We are technologically ready for this challenge. After over two years of testing in laboratories and the area, we have launched a network operating in the capital torrent links catalog. We will invite our clients to test it, to whom we will provide 5G smartphones, produced especially for Orange.

– Ericsson is a pioneer in the introduction of 5G technology worldwide. We will now implement this modern solution in the heart of Warsaw. Cooperation with Orange Polska and our continuous investments in Poland contribute to the growth of 5G innovation, making Poland one of the leading 5G countries in Europe – adds Martin Mellor, head of Ericsson in Poland.

The devices forming the test network operate on the basis of the 80 MHz channel in the 3.4 – 3.6 GHz band, which was provided by the Office of Electronic Communications, because this band is to be used to launch the 5G network in Poland. The base stations have been placed in such a way that it is possible to move between them without breaking the connection with 5G. Orange ensures that the solutions used allow data to be transferred via 5G technology integrated with the Orange backbone fiber network, with which all base stations are connected by an optical link with a throughput of 10 Gb / s, which allows data download at speeds up to 1 Gb / s.


Send your DNA to the moon and save humanity from destruction with LifeShip

Probably most of us will never be honored to land on the moon. However, all is not lost. LifeShip wants, in a sense, to allow us to fly there, and basically our unique genome.

Representatives of the company say that thanks to their idea, every inhabitant of our planet, who has $ 99 on sale, can send to the natural satellite of our planet the most important part of themselves, in the form of DNA, and allow it to survive there for millions of years.

LifeShip wants to create a bank of human genomes on a foreign object in the event of a global disaster. On the surface of the moon, DNA samples will be safe, and when you need to replicate the human species, you’ll be able to use this genetic treasury of knowledge. Then scientists will use our DNA. This vision is supposed to be a great lure for customers and encourage them to take advantage of this interesting offer top web guides.

“People will be able to look up at the moon and feel connected to all life, and realize that they are part of Earth’s great history. It is possible that life came to Earth from deep in space. Perhaps we are now in a moment where we can sow our own lives at objects that are closest to us crossing the Solar System. “My company wants to make it possible for reasonable money,” said Ben Haldeman, LifeShip project promoter and founder of Planet Labs.

Each genome is to be placed in a special capsule and then embedded in amber, which will protect it against the extreme conditions on the surface of the Silver Globe. Into space, thousands of DNA samples will be taken aboard the lander, which will go there on top of the Falcon-9 rocket from SpaceX. The company plans to take off landers with capsules filled with genomes every six months.

This is not the first idea of ​​this type. In April, a private Israeli lander called Beresheet crashed on the moon. On board were genome samples of 25 species of terrestrial creatures and hundreds of tardigrades, small invertebrates, which are considered alien life forms because they can survive in the most extreme conditions.


IBM says that in 3 years artificial intelligence will deprive 120 million people of work

The company has commissioned extensive research related to the future of the development of artificial intelligence and its impact on the labor market. It turns out that the problem of soaring unemployment is a matter of several years, not decades.

More and more global technology giants are putting on robotization in their factories, because the latest technologies result in great savings. After all, robots don’t get sick, don’t take holidays, don’t whine, and can work 24 hours a day, seven days a week. However, IBM reports a global disaster associated with cheap workforce in the form of intelligent robots.

The solution to this biggest problem of the 21st century may be better employee training. The whole snag is that even 5 years ago such courses lasted only 3 days and were fully sufficient, and today production is carried out at such an advanced technological level that it takes even over a month. It’s a lot of time, and time is money. In this respect, money is lost for companies.

That is why companies are increasingly using production automation systems. The problem is that this involves losing a job to many people. IBM specialists say that in the next three years as many as 120 million people will lose their jobs worldwide.

IBM says artificial intelligence will rob 120 million people in 3 years. Fig. Maxpixel.

There are several solutions to this global problem. There is talk of guaranteed basic income, ordinary people having robots that will work for them and work on them, as well as better training people and taxing robots. One thing is certain, if governments do not do something quickly in this matter, then within a decade or two we can have another 2 billion unemployed around the world, and we must know that already 1/3 of humanity lives in poverty, and the total assets of half civilization is in the hands of only a few of the richest people.

Looking through the prism of recent years of the complete lack of ideas from national governments to solve the problems of robotization of industry, everything indicates that in the future the rich will be richer and the poor will be even poorer. Technological progress will not solve the basic issues of the quality of life of people on the planet, but will only allow to enrich a small group of people even more. This fact should not come as a surprise, after all, we live in a world where concerns have become as powerful as the largest countries and they set the conditions according to the economic principle, maximize profits while minimizing costs darknethub.


Solved the mystery of “indestructible” manuscripts from the bottom of the Dead Sea

A team of scientists from MIT, led by Admir Masic, developed a non-invasive research technique that finally answered the question why the records of over 2,000 years have been preserved in such good condition.

This is very important for at least two reasons, first of all we will learn more about the ways of making parchments in antiquity, and secondly we will be able to better protect these relics of the past for future generations. It cannot be denied that the biggest problem of ancient finds, especially all kinds of entries on paper, papyrus or parchment, is their fragility – it is better not even to think how many valuable works or even entire libraries have been destroyed by millennia of our history.

However, as it turns out, some ancient writers have the art of preserving their notes in such a way that they have survived to our times. One of the best examples are manuscripts from the Dead Sea (also known as manuscripts from Qumran, Dead Sea scrolls, manuscripts from the Dead Sea or manuscripts from the Dead Sea), i.e. a collection of documents written in Hebrew, Aramaic and Greek, found in 1947–1956 in 11 caves near the ruins of Kumran in the West Bank.

It is estimated that they were hidden there in the first century AD (their origin dates back to the period from the 3rd century BC to the 1st century AD) to protect them from the Romans when they invaded and destroyed the settlement of Kumran during the Jewish war (66-73 AD) technologius. This combination of religious texts, some of which were created long before the foundation of the settlement, quickly became an international sensation, which unfortunately led to the destruction of some of them.

Local people were able to cut them to pieces and sell them to tourists as souvenirs, and scientists too quickly wanted to know their content and translate them – on the one hand, it allowed to shed new light on certain historical events, but on the other hand it ended with great damage to these priceless artifacts . Fortunately, not at all, because some of them have been preserved in extremely good condition – according to MIT researchers, the temple scroll is 7.6 meters long, which is the clearest and whitest of all, despite the fact that it only has 0.1 mm thick.

It was on it that scientists decided to focus and, thanks to non-invasive X-rays and Raman spectroscopy, scanned the document to create its high-resolution chemical map. Thanks to this, sodium sulfates were discovered as a product of brine evaporation, and since the document had never been in the hands of conservation experts, everything on it has remained unpolluted. This is very important, because it was the chemical composition that allowed to state that this particular document was created from dried animal skin, which was softened, stretched and dried on a special frame, and then rubbed with a salt mixture to create a smoother and whiter writing surface – as now also turns out to be more resistant to external factors.

Interestingly, however, the salt composition should in this case be like a fingerprint, clearly indicating the place of origin of the brine, but … the document does not agree with the composition of the Dead Sea. In short, research provides answers to one question, but also raises more: – Research goes far beyond the Dead Sea scrolls. For example, they show that during the early days of making parchments in the Middle East, many different techniques were used, which is a serious contrast to the one used in the Middle Ages. The study also identifies initial treatments, providing historians and conservators with a new set of analytical tools to study ancient scrolls, the study authors say.